MNOOC | Its All About Business & TechnologyTwitter Christian Louboutin

authentic christian louboutin shoes on saleg-house">

All About Houses for sale Sandbach

Noticeably, houses for sale sandbach carry on growing as more and more individuals are in continuous search for a luxurious and top city dwelling experience.

What another way to pin down your selections on the houses for sale in the city is to compare the house features and amenities. However, when you attempt to look into the properties, you can essentially realize that the characteristics of every house follow the trend of promoting both comfort and style.

Some home buyers favour house for sale in Sandbach over condominiums as for the real home living is living on the surface in the old traditional way. The architecture of Sandbach homes for sale is changing continuously due to the shifting requirement of new home buyers. Modern Kitchen, Granite countertops, and high-end washroom are becoming conventional as compared to high-end as it was the decade back. Open concept kitchen, Hardwood flooring, high ceilings and roomy floor plans are prime prerequisites for every single home buyer of houses for sale Sandbach.

With rising house price the living space saving is significant in building homes in Sandbach. Home Builders and their designers try their best to utilize just about every bit of area to enhance the livable space and reducing the property cost.

No worries regarding looking for a trustworthy real estate agent. There are plenty of them. Hassan Bukhari, for instance, is just about the most dependable experts on the subject of real-estate. Professionals just like him can point you to suitable options by your budget size, your preferences as well as your family’s standard of living. He’ll teach you about the correct documentation required in addition to he will also make sure that all of the legal procedures are done in the correct ways. He’ll make certain you are getting the very best out of what you gave money for.

It is advised buyers will make use of the professional services of a real estate professional when looking for houses for sale Sandbach. For example, they can get in touch with Hassan Bukhari who’s a pro real estate agent in the Sandbach, and he can easily locate the best deals available at the moment. The key benefits of choosing to go with a real estate professional are the worry-free deal. Using one, potential customers will get to have access to different types of properties regular buyers would never know the way to get and specifically buy for a reasonable price tag. With that being said, it seems that anyone curious purchasing a house for sale should get in touch with an experienced real estate professional to get the best deal for their budget!

Categories: Real EstateTags: house sale Sandbach, houses for sale in sandbach, houses for sale sandbach, sandbach house, selling house

Give Your Bedroom Intimacy With Luxury Bedding

For many years, the only places where one could find good quality bedding were hotel rooms, as ordinary people could or would not afford to invest a huge amount of money in sheets. The beds in hotels remained a wonderful experience that they remembered for a long time. But these years are far gone now, as luxury bedding has come to our houses and into our beds. What may this mean, you must be all wondering. Well, even if hotel bedding is not suitable for back home, there is a way to invite that luxury feeling, at a smaller scale, in your everyday life.

Have you just decorated your bedroom and now you want to get some luxury style bedding to complete the look? Or maybe you have had the same bedding for such a long time that you would just like to have something that looks a little more luxurious and feels more comfortable? Whatever your reasons, luxury bedding can be a great addition to any bedroom, and one thing that you can be certain of is its quality.

Why Choose Luxury Bedding?
There are some reasons you should choose Luxury bedding, and one of those reasons is because it will aid in better sleep. It is the fact that we sleep better when we are surrounded by comfort, and luxury bedding is probably comfortable!

Luxury bedding is something that is excellent quality. It can be slightly expensive, though it is probably worth it. It tends to have a high thread count, and that is what gives it the softness that it has. Luxury bedding can improve the look of a bedroom, and it will make you want to sleep there. So, you should choose luxury bedding if you wish to something divinely comfortable and something that looks amazing.

How to Choose Luxury Bedding
When it comes to searching for that perfect luxury bedding, there are certain factors that you will need to take into account. First, do not limit your options to cotton only bedding. Luxury bedding comes in cotton, jersey, silk, linen, and flannel. Each has a different feel, and many people prefer the feel of jersey luxury bedding. However, if you want to go for pure luxury, silk is the material that you should choose. It is light, it feels luxurious, and it has a rather intimate look to it that is perfect for the bedroom. So, by selecting the perfect material, you have saved yourself a little time when it comes to searching for the ideal luxury bedding.

Another thing to take into account is the thread count of the bedding. Generally, the higher the count, the finer the bedding and that will make a big difference in how well you sleep. Usually, luxury bedding has a thread count of around 200 but you can get higher, so always shop around.

But it will undoubtedly be worth it once you have used it for the first time. The bedroom is a place to relax and unwind and, with luxury bedding, it is easier for you to do this and it gives that perfect first impression too!

Categories: Bed AccessoriesTags: bed, bedding, linen bed, linen bed accessories, luxury bed, luxury bedding, luxury linen bed

Tips that Can Help you Locate Reliable Drink Driving Advocates

If you’ve never dealt with drink driving lawyers, accessing a genuine one in your area can be very difficult. Basically, before considering any drink driving advocate, ensure that you perform a thorough research so that you can end up securing a professional that will not only give you very satisfying services but also affordable quotes. Research will enable you be in a position to distinguish between a genuine drink driving advocate from a fake one. This write- up will give tricks that can enable a person find a reliable drink driving advocate in his or her area.

Tips that Can Help you Locate Reliable Drink Driving Advocates

Tip# 1: Looking for Genuine Lawyers Online:-
Any genuine and reliable drink driving advocate should not have a problem when it comes to marketing his/ her services online. All you’ ll be needed to do is goggling “Ways of Locating a Genuine Drink Driving Advocate” and a step- by- step guideline that you can follow will be offered. However, only deal with advocates that are marketed on genuine or legit sites so as to effectively reduce the possibility of being conned or misled.

Tip# 2: Knowledge and/ or Reference:-
Friend, relatives or even co –workers that have previously hired drink driving advocates previously can boost your knowledge
concerning the subject of interest. Such type of people have to explain everything they know concerning drink driving lawyers, how they managed to find them, how professional the ones they dealt with were as well as the cash they were charged for services rendered.

Tip# 3: Visiting the Lawyers you’ ve Located:-
Visit all lawyers you’ve found ad inquire more about how professional they are. The lawyers should issue you several lists of contacts info of the clients
they’ve dealt with recently so that you can communicate with them and prove how reliable these pros you opt to hire are.

Tip# 4: Considering Lawyers that are Licensed:-
Hire a lawyers that is licensed as it’ s a clear method of confirming if you are dealing with an expert that is carrying his/ her business
legally.

Tip# 5: Considering Lawyers with Appealing Quotes:-
Get rid of the other lawyers courtesy of the afore- mentioned tricks and deal with an expert guaranteeing you with very affordable quotes and satisfying services.

Last, but not least, any agreement with any lawyer you consider must be in writing so as to have proof to produce later in case its need arises. For more content about drink driving lawyers, ensure that you go through this site i.e. motordefencelawyers.co.uk/drink-driving-solicitors/.
Thank you.

Categories: DUI/DWITags: drink and drive, drink driving lawyers

Hints And Tips For Car Boot Buyers

If you are a person who adores sports just like windsurfing, football, golf, snowboarding and is interested in gardening and fishing, the boot of the car is likely to be exposed to dirt and grime because of the various kinds of things being carried by your car.

To ensure protection against mud, dust and water while carrying messy loads, you have to protect your motor vehicle with car boot line. These can keep the back of the car free of all unappealing damages consequently keeping the car’s worth.

There are 3 basic types of boot liners: Module hard plastic or fiber, Canvas type materials possibly PVC or waterproof certified, and semi-rigid plastic. For anybody who is quite uncertain of what you should purchase for your car, keep reading as we talk about the advantages and drawbacks of all materials.

1. Molded or plastic. This type offers extensive protection of puncture and sharp items. Most of these car boot lines are in tray web form which is water-tight against stains of most prevalent liquids. They can last a long time depending on use. However, molded or big plastic car boot line have low back and sections, thus it doesn’t offer extensive protection for the whole car boot area. They may be perfect for safeguarding the base of the boot and part of the body only.

3. Canvas types. These types of lines, on the other hand, are sometimes tailor made with each single car to ensure optimum coverage of base back and sides of backside seats. Many have watertight qualities done through PVC or backing connected to the underside of this canvas. Nevertheless, these liners are susceptible to puncture or perhaps gagging particularly when sharp items are transported, thus stopping their water-resistant claims.

4. Semi-rigid vinyl. The last happen to be as amazing as the molded line and are pretty stronger when it comes to direct affect because of its semi-rigid plastic material. They will roll up to match most car boots in contrast to molded line. These boot liners are the best to take advantage of, thus unit installation does not need too many elements like Velcro or various other fixings. On the other hand, they cannot become watertight as they have just three edges and have a set base on the tailgate.

There are a lot of types of boot liners out there in industry nowadays. You can even have your car’s boot ship custom designed so you can ensure that it will suit your car wonderfully and not bother about it becoming too loose over the sides.

Categories: Car AccessoriesTags: boot liners, car boot liners

Which Chemicals Supplier Should You Go For?

When it comes to selecting a chemicals supplier, many potential customers face challenges. In fact, many confess to discovering much later that the so-called “best” supplier was actually no good. The firm delivered substandard products, never keep its word, didn’t meet the deadlines, or was overcharging them. Truth is that there are all kinds of service providers. However, to enjoy the best service, you need to look at the following:

Reputation
Yes, the firm may claim to be the best or most reliable. But is it? The only way to find out is by verifying their reputation or trustworthiness. Normally, a firm will be known for what its good is at and what it’s not. A seasoned or credible company will have a good reputation in matters relating to excellent service, high-quality products, reliability, efficiency, good distribution network, competitive pricing and more.

Experience
Like in any other products, you are more guaranteed of the best service if you deal with a chemicals supplier that has been in this field for many years. Over the course of time, the firm will have understood the market, adopted the best strategies and is always investing in newer and better technologies. A firm which has been in the industry for longer is more dependable than that which was established recently. A supplier who is backed by negative reviews or comments is definitely not worth working with.

Service Variety
Chemicals come in all types. What you may need now is not you will need in the future due to changes in demand or technology. Also, what may be the best to your business isn’t ideally a good option for another firm. To cater for different markets, a good company will stock a broad array of products. In fact, the firm will always be looking for newer and improved products to stay abreast of new developments.

Distribution Network
There is more to choosing a supplier than just having the goods under one roof. You need to be certain that they can be reached from any part and have the capacity to ship the products there. The top firms not only have a regional but also a global presence. You can order from anywhere and will receive the goods within the shortest time. The ordering process is also simple and straightforward and so are the modes of payment. A firm that comes to mind when talking about good distributorship is Norkem. It can be reachable from many regions locally, regionally, and globally.

Conclusion
Finding a good supplier of chemicals is normally a challenge for many people, both experienced and inexperienced. Firstly, many companies will exaggerate their capacity or potential. Secondly, they may have a limited distribution network that makes it hard to reach them in certain locations. Thirdly, they may not stay abreast with the latest trends and developments. Fourthly, they may have poor customer service which will undermine the service quality.

However, by focusing on the above issues, chances of identifying the best company the first time are higher. The right chemicals supplier will be highly experienced, has a good distribution network, is known to be trustworthy, and offers a range of products. Other than the good service and products you also enjoy maximum satisfaction.

Categories: Chemical SupplierTags: chemical, Chemical supplier, supplier

Christian Louboutin

christelijke louboutin klaring
louboutins zapatos
christian louboutin lägenheter
christian louboutin billig
scarpe da donna per le donne

Christian Louboutin

Eric Reinhardt (Auteur) John Malkovich (Préface) Paru le 25 octobre 2011 Beau livre (cartonné)
4 1 avis Donner votre avis ✔ Votre avis a été enregistré
Questions et réponses
2 coups de cœur des Libraires
    • Christian Louboutin_0
    Christian Louboutin
    PLAYLIST
    Les coulisses de la sélection du Prix du Roman Fnac 2014, en vidéo
    Les coulisses de la sélection du Prix du Roman Fnac 2014, en vidéo
    00:00 / 00:00
    Recevoir une alerte

    Abonnez-vous à ce produit pour être alerté(e) avant tout le monde d'une baisse de prix, d'une promo exceptionnelle, ou de sa disponibilité en stock...

    Revendez le vôtre : Christian Louboutin en quelques clics seulement,
    sur fnac.com

    1. Vous mettez en vente
    2. Un client achète votre produit
    3. Vous expédiez votre produit
    4. Vous êtes payés
    Revendre un produit En savoir plus
    Professionnel ? Créer votre boutique
    Billetterie [ET IN ARCADIA EGO]

    Billetterie

    Tous les billets pour Eric Reinhardt

    • Du 01/02/2018 00:00 au 11/02/2018 00:00 - Paris 02, Opera Comique
    Réserver

    Le mot de l'éditeur Christian Louboutin

    Du music-hall parisien aux tapis rouges d'Hollywood, l'extraordinaire parcours de Christian Louboutin, le premier créateur de chaussures de luxe au monde.

    Les talons hauts, les mélanges de matières, les plumes, les imprimés sont les marques de fabrique des souliers dessinés par Christian Louboutin, dont les célèbres semelles rouges constituent la signature mondialement connue.

    Le créateur a conquis les stars comme les icônes de la mode et l'on remarque ses escarpins et ses bottes dans les restaurants et les boîtes de nuit de Paris à Hong Kong.

    Cette monographie retrace les vingt ans de carrière de l'artiste et célèbre le spectre prodigieux de son art, depuis les créations glamour devenues cultes jusqu'aux modèles les plus fétichistes.

    Christian Louboutin se remémore ses années d'apprentissage et les rencontres qui ont compté pour lui.

    Il évoque les visions qui l'ont inspiré au cabaret ou dans ses voyages en Asie et au Moyen-Orient. Il nous livre des anecdotes émouvantes, comme l'histoire qui l'a incité à glisser une lettre d'amour dans un de ses modèles.

    Pour illustrer cette rétrospective, les photographies de Philippe Garcia, spécialement créées pour ce livre, avec come modèle, entre autres, Kristin Scott Thomas ou Dita Von Teese, proposent une interprétation saisissante des plus belles pièces de Christian Louboutin, offrant une vision envoûtante du travail du plus grand créateur de soulier de notre époque.

    Coups de cœur des Libraires

    CHRISTEL de FNAC Pau

    .

    Mesdames, Faites vous plaisir avec les yeux avec cet ouvrage collector qui signe les 20 ans de carrière de Christian Louboutin!

    BENJAMIN de FNAC Paris - Odéon

    Talons aiguilles.

    Sublime hommage au créateur d'escarpins le plus couru de Paris! Un ouvrage très soigné et complet qui revient sur la naissance du succès de la marque à la semelle rouge, qui expose des kilomètres de talons vertigineux et se clot par un historique des pièces le plus marquantes des collections passées. Give me more!

    On en parle Christian Louboutin

    Vidéo

    PLAYLIST
    Les coulisses de la sélection du Prix du Roman Fnac 2014, en vidéo
    Les coulisses de la sélection du Prix du Roman Fnac 2014, en vidéo
    00:00 / 00:00

    Caractéristiques détailléesChristian Louboutin

    • Auteur Eric Reinhardt
    • Préface John Malkovich
    • Editeur Rizzoli Flammarion
    • Date de parution 25/10/2011
    • Format 25cm x 33cm
    • EAN 978-0847837298
    • ISBN 0847837297
    • Illustration Illustrations couleur
    • Nombre de pages 304

    Événements à venir Autour de Eric Reinhardt

    Voir tous les événements
    Billetterie [ET IN ARCADIA EGO]

    Billetterie

    • Du 01/02/2018 00:00 au 11/02/2018 00:00 - , Paris 02 Opera Comique

    Autres œuvres de Eric Reinhardt



    Christian Louboutin

      (Redirected from Christian Laboutin)

    Christian Louboutin (French: [kʁis.tjɑ̃ lu.bu.tɛ̃]; born 7 January 1964) is a French fashion designer whose high-end stiletto footwear incorporates shiny, red-lacquered soles that have become his signature.[6] Initially a freelance designer for fashion houses, he started his own shoe salon in Paris, with his shoes finding favor with celebrity clientele. He has partnered with other organizations for creative projects including limited edition pieces, gallery exhibits, and even a custom bar. His company has since branched out into men's footwear, handbags, fragrances and makeup.

    Christian Louboutin
    Christian Louboutin.jpg Christian Louboutin in 2011 documentary for W (magazine).
    Born (1964-01-07) 7 January 1964 (age 53)
    Paris, France
    Occupation Fashion designer
    Years active 1991–present
    Christian Louboutin Ltd.
    Type Private, S.A.
    Industry Consumer goods
    Founded 1991
    Founder Christian Louboutin
    Henri Seydoux
    Bruno Chamberlain and Faheema Moosa[1]
    Headquarters Paris, France
    Key people Christian Louboutin, co-founder
    Bruno Chamberland, co-founder and CEO[2]
    Henri Seydoux, co-founder and director
    Alexis Mourot, COO and GM[2]
    [3]
    Products Shoes, purses, wallets, cosmetics, fragrance
    Revenue Increase $250 million (31 December 2010) on 600,000 pairs of shoes a year[4]
    Number of employees 420 (2011)[5]
    Website christianlouboutin.com

    Contents

    Early lifeEdit

    Louboutin was born and raised in Paris's 12th arrondissement. He was the only son of Roger, a cabinet-maker ,[7] and Irene, a homemaker, both French, from Brittany. He has three sisters. Louboutin said in a 2012 interview that he was "much darker-skinned than everyone else in his family. You know, I felt I wasn't French. My family was very French and so I decided they had probably adopted me. But instead of feeling it was terrible and that I was an outsider who had to go and find my real family, I invented my own history, full of characters from Egypt because I was very into the pharaohs."[8] He incidentally discovered, following a revelation by one of his sisters in 2014 that his biological father was in fact an Egyptian, with whom his mother Irene had been having a secret affair.[9][10]

    Louboutin was expelled from school three times and then decided to run away from home at the age of 12,[11] at which point his mother allowed him to move out to live at a friend's house.[5] He faced much opposition when he decided to drop out from school. However, he claims that what helped him make up his mind was an interview on TV with Sophia Loren, in which she introduced her sister, saying she had to leave school when she was only 12, but when she turned 50, she got her degree. He later remarked, "Everybody applauded! And I thought, 'Well, at least if I regret it I'm going to be like the sister of Sophia Loren!'"

    Personal lifeEdit

    Landscape architect Louis Benech has been his partner since 1997. Louboutin and his partner spend time between their homes in Paris's 1st arrondissement,[12] a fisherman's cottage in Lisbon,[13] a palace in Aleppo,[14] a houseboat on the Nile christened Dahabibi-my love boat, and a house in Luxor. The Luxor domicile is a former craftsman's workshop, made of earthen bricks, to which he has added an additional floor and a rooftop belvedere.[15] Additionally, he shares a 13th-century castle in the Vendée with his business partner Bruno Chamberlain.[5]

    CareerEdit

    Louboutin began sketching shoes in his early teens, ignoring his academic studies. Going through a punk phase, he was in a few films, including 1979 cult classic Race d'ep and The Homosexual Century, which attracted an English-language audience. His first job was at the Folies Bergères, the cabaret where he assisted the entertainers backstage. He was also a fixture on the city's party scene, clubbing his nights away alongside Mick Jagger and Andy Warhol.[5]

    His little formal training included drawing and the decorative arts at the Académie d'Art Roederer. Louboutin claims his fascination with shoes began in 1976, when he visited the Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Océanie on the avenue Daumesnil. It was there that he saw a sign from Africa forbidding women wearing sharp stilettos from entering a building for fear of damage to the extensive wood flooring. This image stayed in his mind, and he later used this idea in his designs. "I wanted to defy that," Louboutin said. "I wanted to create something that broke rules and made women feel confident and empowered."[16]

    Fascinated by world cultures, he ran away in his teens to Egypt and spent a year in India. Louboutin returned to Paris in 1981, where he assembled a portfolio of drawings of elaborate high heels. He brought it to the top couture houses. The effort resulted in employment with Charles Jourdan. Subsequently, Louboutin met Roger Vivier, who claims to have invented the stiletto, or spiked-heel shoe. Louboutin became an apprentice in Vivier's atelier.

    Going on to serve as a freelance designer, Louboutin designed women's shoes for Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, and Maud Frizon. In the late 1980s, he turned away from fashion to become a landscape gardener and to contribute to Vogue but missed working with shoes and set up his company in 1991.

    With funds from two backers, he opened a Paris shoe salon in 1991 with Princess Caroline of Monaco as his first customer. She complimented the store one day when a fashion journalist was present, and the journalist's subsequent publication of Princess' comments helped greatly to increase Louboutin's renown. Clients such as Diane von Fürstenberg and Catherine Deneuve followed. Later, those interested in his stiletto heels have included Christina Aguilera, Shirley Coates, Joan Collins, Jennifer Lopez, Madonna, Tina Turner, Marion Cotillard, Nicki Minaj, Gwyneth Paltrow, and Blake Lively. Sarah Jessica Parker wore a pair of shoes by Louboutin for her wedding. Britney Spears wears a pair of high-heeled Louboutins in her music video "If U Seek Amy" that were not available for sale until a month after the video was released.[17][18]

    Louboutin has topped the Luxury Institute's annual Luxury Brand Status Index (LBSI) for three years; the brand's offerings were declared the Most Prestigious Women's Shoes in 2007, 2008, and 2009.[19][20][21] By 2011, Louboutin became the most searched-for shoe brand online.[22]

    ShoesEdit

      An example of Louboutin's signature red-bottoms

    Louboutin helped bring stilettos back into fashion in the 1990s and 2000s,[citation needed] designing dozens of styles with heel heights of 120 mm (4.72 inches) and higher. The designer's professed goal has been to "make a woman look sexy, beautiful, to make her legs look as long as [he] can".[23][24] While he does offer some lower-heeled styles, Louboutin is generally associated with his dressier evening-wear designs incorporating jeweled straps, bows, feathers, patent leather, red soles, and other similar decorative touches. He is most popularly known for the red leather soles on his high heel shoes, commonly referred to as "sammy red soled shoes".[25]

    His signature red soles were first created in 1993. “My sketches were not reproduced exactly as I had designed them and I couldn’t figure out why. The two dimensional sketch was so powerful on paper, but when turned into a three-dimensional object, it was somehow lacking energy. Frustrated after having tried different things to liven up the design, I spontaneously grabbed my assistant’s red nail polish and painted the sole. I instantly knew that this would be a success!”.[26]

    Christian Louboutin's red-bottom colour code is Pantone 18-1663 TPX.[27][28]

    His single biggest client is American novelist Danielle Steel, who is reputed to own over 6,000 pairs and is known to have purchased up to 80 pairs at a time when shopping at his stores.[29]

    Trademark litigationEdit

    The red sole is protected as a trademark in several countries, and litigation has taken place in various disputes in which Louboutin claimed infringement of its rights. Litigation generally also involved discussion of the validity or the scope of protection of the trademark.

    Belgium - Louboutin vs. Dr. Adams Footwear

    In 2013, Louboutin filed a trademark infringement claim of the Benelux trademark against Dr. Adams. The Court of First Instance of Brussels declared the trademark however invalid.[30] That decision was overturned by the Brussels Court of Appeal, who forbade the sale of shoes with a red sole by Dr. Adams.[31]

    France - Louboutin vs. Zara

    In France, in first instance the trademark of Louboutin was held valid, but not infringed by Zara. The Court of Appeal however considered the French trademark invalid. The latter decision was upheld by the French Supreme Court in 2012.[32]

    Netherlands - Louboutin vs. Van Haren

    Also in 2013, in The Netherlands, Louboutin initiated litigation against Van Haren, seeking it to stop selling the red soled shoe "5th Avenue by Halle Berry", based also on the Benelux trademark. Litigation in this case is still ongoing, and the District Court of The Hague has proposed in 2015 to ask preliminary questions to the Court of Justice of the European Union that it considers necessary in order to determine whether the trademark is valid.[33]

    United States - Christian Louboutin vs. Yves Saint Laurent

    In 2011, Christian Louboutin company filed a US trademark infringement claim of its red-soled shoes against designer Yves Saint Laurent.[34] The firm is expecting that the YSL shoe design will be revoked and is seeking US$1 million in damages.[35] However, in August 2011, U.S. District Judge Victor Marrero denied the firm's request to stop the sale of women's shoes with red soles by Yves Saint Laurent. The judge questioned the validity of the trademark, writing, "Louboutin's claim would cast a red cloud over the whole industry, cramping what other designers do, while allowing Louboutin to paint with a full palette."[36] Judge Marrero also wrote, "Louboutin is unlikely to be able to prove its red outsole brand is entitled to trademark protection, even if it has gained enough public recognition in the market to have acquired secondary meaning."[37] In his thirty-two-page decision, Judge Marrero compared fashion designers to painters and noted how creativity for both is dependent upon using color as "an indispensable medium" that "plays a unique role." The Court observed that: "The law should not countenance restraints that would interfere with creativity and stifle competition by one designer, while granting another a monopoly invested with the right to exclude use of an ornamental or functional medium necessary for freest and most productive artistic expression by all engaged in the same enterprise."[38] Jewelry company Tiffany & Co., which has its blue box trademarked, filed an amicus curiae brief supporting the right to trademark a color.[39] In September 2012, the court finally ruled that Louboutin retains the exclusive right to use the color red on the bottom of its shoes whenever the outer portion of the shoe is any color besides red, while Yves Saint Laurent can continue to sell its shoes with red soles as long as the whole shoe is red.[40] The YSL monochromatic shoe – red upper, red outsole – over which the lawsuit originally had been brought and against which Louboutin had tried and failed to get a preliminary injunction, therefore won't infringe the trimmed-down trademark.[41]

    Switzerland – Christian Louboutin vs. Eidgenössisches Institut für Geistiges Eigentum (IGE)

    The Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property rejected Louboutin's trademark's extension to Switzerland in 2011, considering the trademark invalid. The Swiss Federal Supreme Court confirmed the invalidity of the trademark in Switzerland in February 2017.[42]

    Turnover and pricingEdit

    In his first year of business, Louboutin sold 200 pairs of shoes.[1] In 2012, he sold 700,000 a year[1] and expected revenue to grow at an annual rate of 40 percent.[43] In terms of market share, the U.S. accounts for 52 percent of Louboutin's sales; Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 30 percent; and Asia & Japan, 18 percent.[43] 95% of the firm's $300 million in annual revenue[44] comes from shoes,[43] with the remainder derived from purses and handbags.[43] They expect the volume of handbags to eventually represent 20% of their annual sales.[43]

    Wholesale purchases represented in 2009 88% of the business.[43] Overseas, the company has partnered with Pedder Group of Hong Kong for distribution in their Asian markets and the Chalhoub Group of the United Arab Emirates for their representation in the Middle East.[45]

    As of March 2012, the firm employed 420 staff members[46] (referred to as Loubi's Angels) around the world. Most of the footwear is manufactured and produced at his factory in Milan, but he also maintains a small atelier on Rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for private clients and one of a kind creations.[7]

    Louboutins can sell from $495 and up, with crystal-encrusted pairs costing up to $6,000.[7] The base price for a custom-made pair of Louboutin is $4,000. If the style already exists, it is standard price tag plus 30%.[7]

    Brand extensionsEdit

    Louboutin has said over the past decade, he has been offered licensing deals on everything from cars and glasses to swimwear and ready-to-wear, but has turned them down as he does not want his name to be one that can be licensed.[44] In 2003, his first extension outside of shoes was the introduction of his handbags and purses line.

    In 2011, he launched a collection of men's footwear at a new exclusive store in Paris. Two explanations were given why Louboutin started a men's line. The first was a story of a French woman who asked him to make her a pair of shoes for her very large feet. He custom-created the size 13 1/2 shoes for her, but she didn't end up buying them. Instead, he passed them along to a friend who gave them to her husband.[47] The second story was that the idea of starting a men's line came from musician Mika, who asked Louboutin to design all the shoes for his show for his tour.[48] He also noticed, "There is a group of men that is thinking a little bit more like women. They're super-excited to buy the 'new thing.' I've noticed on blogs, for example, that men are very serious about their shoes now. They treat shoes very much as objects, as collectors' items. Of course, there is still a group that is more conservative in their tastes. They like to pass their shoes down to their son or say they have had a pair for 25 years".[44] A unique feature introduced was the Tattoo Parlor, where customers could have digital photos taken of their ink and embroidered onto their shoes[47] or, embroider the signature brogues in addition to selecting designs by Christian Louboutin with prices starting at around $8,000.[49]

    In 2012, Louboutin partnered with Batallure Beauty LLC to launch Christian Louboutin Beauté to enter the luxury beauty market.[50] Catherine Roggero is the New York-based general manager for Christian Louboutin, a venture between Christian Louboutin SAS and Batallure Beauty.[51] Roggero "will be responsible for developing Louboutin's beauty business."[51]

    On 23 July 2014, Christian Louboutin Beauté launched a range of nail lacquers, exclusively debuting the signature red shade, Rouge Louboutin, at the Saks Fifth Avenue flagship in New York and its 15 US boutiques. In support of this launch, the high-end department store created Loubiville, a five-window visual merchandising display. The range was more widely distributed on 6 August 2014 to Bergdorf Goodman, Neiman Marcus, Nordstrom, and select Sephora boutiques. The product is a logical brand extension, as an assistant's nail polish was the impetus for the shoes' red soles. Much like the shoes, the polish is receiving attention for its provocative shape, a long spiky cap, designed to resemble a calligrapher's brush or a spire.[52]

    In 2015, he expanded his foray into beauty with a lipstick collection. The tube was inspired by Babylonian architecture and Middle Eastern antiquities.[53] As of 2017, he offers 38 tones, divided into three collections.

    Louboutin entered the fragrance market in 2016 with the release of three parfums: Bikini Questa Sera, with jasmine and tuberose notes; Tornade Blonde, with rose and cassis notes; and Trouble in Heaven, with patchouli and amber notes. The bottles were designed by Thomas Heatherwick's studio, which was also responsible for designing the 2012 Olympic cauldron.[54]

    ProjectsEdit

    In 2007, he collaborated with the filmmaker David Lynch on Fetish, an exhibition of his shoes in Lynch's photographs as erotic sculptural objects including ballet pumps made vertical by an impossible heel, or shoes with heels projecting inches beyond the sole[55] (Viennese heel). He partnered once again with Lynch and Swizz Beats to compose music when Louboutin directed a show at Crazy Horse, called Feu, which ran from 5 March to 31 May 2012.[56]

    In conjunction with Bergdorf Goodman, he held a competition for design students at the Parsons New School for Design who graduated in 2010 and 2011, encouraging them to create apparel inspired by Louboutin's silhouettes of the past two decades, as well as the brand's new capsule collection.[57]

    In 2011, Louboutin celebrated his 20th anniversary with a new self-titled book, published by Rizzoli.[58][59] Bound in pink faux leather with gilded pages and a five-piece fold-out cover, the book covers the designer's most iconic styles as well as an insight into his influences and photos from his personal archives. American actor John Malkovich, who is a close friend of Louboutin's, provides the book's foreword, while some of the photography is courtesy of David Lynch.[60] The book is divided into six chapters: the first documents Louboutin's biography, noting his early work for Chanel and Yves Saint Laurent; the second looks at the various interiors of the label's international stores; the third charts 20 years of Louboutin design, the fourth features intimate photographs of the designer's Paris and Egypt homes, while the fifth and sixth explore his collaborations.[60] The retail price of the book on launch was US$150.[59]

    In 2012, he was commissioned by Disney to create a modern-day Cinderella-inspired pair of slippers limited to just 20 pieces, to complement release of the Cinderella: Diamond Edition Blu-ray Combo Pack in the fall.[61] Louboutin also appears in a Disney-produced 10-minute short called The Magic of the Glass Slipper: A Cinderella Story, a bonus feature on the Cinderella Blu-ray DVD.[62] He also partnered with Mattel that same year to create a limited edition "Louboutin Barbie". The first in the series was a cat burglar themed Barbie, which retailed for $150 and sold out the first day.[63]

    At the 2012 Grey Goose Winter Ball, he designed his dream cocktail bar to benefit the Elton John foundation. Dubbed the Crazy Luxor bar, the sculptural piece is shaped like a stiletto and is finished in a high-shine black lacquer with a red trim to echo the designer's signature red sole. The ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics on the facade of the bar are in honour of his love of Egypt. The bar was later auctioned at the Architecture of Taste-themed ball on 29 October 2012 in Battersea Park, London.[64]

    Also in 2012, an iPhone app was launched allowing users to view seasonal collections, watch brand videos, make a brand wish list, find a store, and view a feature called '20 Ans' ('20 years'), which shows the hand drawn designs of the Louboutin shoes and the finished product.[65]

    Louboutin was also one of the judges at the Martini Royale Casting Party to find the new face of the drinks brand.[66]

    In 2013, Louboutin was celebrated at Toronto's Design Exchange[67] with a comprehensive exhibit featuring themes of showgirls, fetish, construction and travel.[68]

    On October 12, 2017, Louboutin will launch a new project collaborating with Indian haute couture designer, Sabyasachi Mukherjee. The line features fifteen women's styles and four men's styles, each a unique design influenced by Indian textiles, embroidery, patterns, and art. Louboutin noted his excitement about working with Indian handcraft, stating he finds it to be the best in the world.[69]

    StoresEdit

    In the spring of 2012, the company opened its first men's store in New York City, with over 1,000 square feet of space and located next to its existing Horatio Street store.[70] From previous experience in his Paris store, Louboutin claimed that women feel uncomfortable when men stare at them while they try on shoes, hence the separate stores.[49]

    The first Louboutin Men's Boutique, Christian Louboutin Boutique Homme on Rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau in Paris, opened in the summer of 2012.

    Country Number of stores Cities Location
    France 4 Paris (4) Rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau (2), Rue du Faubourg St-Honoré, Rue de Grenelle
    United States of America 14 New York City (3), Las Vegas (3), Los Angeles, Costa Mesa, Atlanta, Dallas, Miami, Chicago, San Francisco, Honolulu Washington Street, Madison Avenue and Horatio Street in New York City, Caesars Palace, The Palazzo and the Shops at Crystals (Aria) in Las Vegas, Beverly Hills in Los Angeles (Nd Robertson Boulevard, West Hollywood) and South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa, Highland Park Village in Dallas, Design District in Miami, Oak Street in Chicago, Buckhead Atlanta in Atlanta, Maiden Lane in San Francisco,[71] Kalakaua Avenue in Honolulu
    United Kingdom 3 London (3) Motcomb Street (Original), Mount Street, Dover Street (Men's)
    Ireland 1 Dublin (1) Brown Thomas, Grafton Street
    Canada 1 Toronto (1) Yorkville
    United Arab Emirates 2 Dubai (2) Mall of the Emirates, Dubai Mall
    Kuwait 1 Kuwait City Salhiya Complex
    Vietnam 1 Ho Chi Minh City Dong Khoi Street
    Bahrain 1 Manama City Center Manama
    Lebanon 1 Beirut Beirut Souks
    Russia 4 Moscow (3), Saint Petersburg Malaya Bronnaya Street (the original), Petrovka Street, Stoleshnikov Lane, Bolshaya Konyushennaya Ulitsa
    Saudi Arabia 2 Riyadh, Jeddah Kingdom Centre-Riyadh, Al Khayyat Center-Jeddah
    Singapore 1 Singapore City Ngee Ann City
    Brazil 2 Brasília, São Paulo Iguatemi São Paulo, Iguatemi Brasília,
    Australia 2 Sydney, Melbourne Westfield Sydney, Collins Street, Melbourne
    China 6 Hong Kong (3), Shanghai, Beijing, Shenyang On Lan Street, Hong Kong; The Gateway, Hong Kong, Canton Road; Shanghai Centre, Sanlitun Road, Shenhe District
    Denmark 1 Copenhagen Grønnegade 6
    Indonesia 1 Jakarta Plaza Indonesia
    Japan 4 Tokyo (2), Nagoya, Osaka Ginza District in Tokyo, Shinsaibashi, Osaka
    Taiwan 1 Taipei Breeze Center
    Spain 1 Madrid Calle Claudio Coello
    Switzerland 2 Geneva, Zurich Rue Du Rhone, Wühre 7
    India 2 New Delhi, Mumbai Emporio Mall, Horniman Circle Gardens
    Qatar 1 Doha Villaggio Mall
    Thailand 1 Bangkok Central Embassy
    Turkey 2[citation needed] Istanbul Abdi İpekçi Street, İstinye Park
    Italy 2 Rome, Milan Piazza di San Lorenzo in Lucina in Rome, Via Vincenzo Capelli in Milan
    Monaco 1 Monaco Avenue de Grande Bretagne
    Belgium 1 Brussels Grote Zavel

    Christian Louboutin Miami is located on 40th Street in the Design District of Miami, Florida.[72] Louboutin chose to open a store in Miami because of the mix of businesses, the small urban scale, and his obvious following there. During Miami Basel art fair when the store opened in 2009, he said, "You don't get this with Europeans—but Americans actually come into my office in Paris to meet me, and a lot of those people are from Miami." The boutique stocks Louboutin's most colorful, strappy, precarious styles, on account of the subtropical climate and the fact that, Louboutin says, "people barely walk in the street."[73]

    The 2,400-square-foot space was designed by Eric Clough and 212box.[73] Above a steel awning shaped like a Louboutin shoe in profile, with a red underside to boot, pink orchids sprout from the coral-stone facade. Still more orchids project from a wall in the entry gallery. Pantyhose have been recycled by Dutch artist Madeleine Berkhemer into a multi-colored sculpture that stretches over the empty concrete floor with some of Louboutin's signature shoes dangling in the overhead tangle of nylon "like insects trapped in a psychedelic spider's web."[72] This L-shape space wraps two sides of a rectangular volume clad almost entirely in one-way mirror: a box that contains the merchandise for sale while allowing people who've just come in the front door to "witness other people falling in love with the shoes," Clough says.[73]

    The inside areas in the store are defined by lush red carpeting. Blue, blown-glass chandeliers hang from the ceilings.[72] Hieroglyphics, symbols and Braille are carved onto wooden Codebox Tiles that line some of the store's interior walls.[74] hiding the words of a poem by contemporary American poet Lyn Hejinian in plain sight, in the etched wooden tiles lining the gallery wall behind the orchids. "This is the way I / Want to go in and / Out of heaven... / Windows full at 5pm / My skull a place / Except that I think of space as the more exciting," the lines read.[73] These coded tiles appear in many Louboutin stores designed by Clough around the world, including São Paulo, Brazil.[75]

    CounterfeitingEdit

    Louboutin's own website sells some of their products online, and contains a statement that it is the only legitimate online source with the word Louboutin in the domain name to do so.[76][77][78][79] Legitimate Louboutin shoes can also be purchased in-store and online from several high-end retailers such as Harrods, Harvey Nichols, Selfridges, Joseph, Browns, Matches, Cricket and Cruise and online through Net-a-Porter and The Outnet in the UK. Barneys, Saks Fifth Avenue, Neiman Marcus, Bergdorf Goodman, and Nordstrom sell genuine Louboutin in the US. In Canada, Christian Louboutin shoes are available from Holt Renfrew and Davids.

    Online, counterfeit Louboutin shoes are available[80][81] In the last few years, the company has served hundreds of DMCA notices on Google to remove many sites selling fake goods from their search results.[82]

    The company set up a separate website focused on protecting the brand and detailing more than 3,000 websites that sell fake goods, many of which have been closed down.[79]

    FilmographyEdit

    In popular cultureEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ a b c Armstrong, Lisa (14 April 2012). "Christian Louboutin: the fun and fetishism". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2012-04-16. 
    2. ^ a b "Christian Louboutin Silver Screen-Bound". Daily Front Row. 11 April 2007. Archived from the original on 2013-06-09. 
    3. ^ Denardo, Maria (18 January 2012). "Christian Louboutin Hires Priya Mohindra". Daily Front Row. Archived from the original on 2012-01-22. 
    4. ^ Wolff, Zoe (28 October 2011). "Sole Provider". Elle. Archived from the original on 2011-11-03. 
    5. ^ a b c d Walker, Harriet (29 October 2011). "Christian Louboutin: Sexual heeling". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 2011-10-29. 
    6. ^ Bourgoin, Suzan Michele (2 December 1997). Encyclopedia of World Biography (2 ed.). Gale. ISBN 978-0-7876-2546-7. 
    7. ^ a b c d Collins, Lauren (28 March 2011). "Sole Mate". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2011-03-23. 
    8. ^ Ramaswamy, Chitara (8 May 2012). "Interview: Christian Louboutin, shoe designer". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 2013-05-20. 
    9. ^ "Christian Louboutin: The World's Most Luxurious Shoes". Documentaries. 11 August 2015. Channel 4, UK. Archived from the original on 2015-08-21.  Narrator: Fiona Flynn.
    10. ^ Sowray, Bibby (12 August 2015). "11 things we learned from Christian Louboutin: The World's Most Luxurious Shoes". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2015-08-14. 
    11. ^ Alexander, Ella (28 September 2011). "Legend of Louboutin". British Vogue. Archived from the original on 2011-11-27. 
    12. ^ Marshall, Alexandra (June 2008). "Christian Louboutin, Shoe Designer and Stylish Traveler". Travel+Leisure. American Express Publishing Corporation. Archived from the original on 2008-06-08. 
    13. ^ Alexander, Ella (25 October 2010). "On The Ropes". British Vogue. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. 
    14. ^ Ostler, Catherine (4 April 2011). "Could a doctor's daughter from Acton – now Syria's first lady – stop the bloodshed?". Daily Mail. London. Archived from the original on 2011-04-05. 
    15. ^ Modigliani, Ruben (2011). "Louboutin at Leisure". Elle Decor. Hearst Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-01-03. 
    16. ^ "Video on Christian Louboutin Shoes". YouTube. WatchMojo. 4 October 2007. Archived from the original on 2014-04-29. 
    17. ^ Staff Reporter (2 March 2009). "Britney adopts raunchy new look". Fairfax New Zealand. Fairfax Media. 
    18. ^ Jones, Anthony (20 February 2009). "Britney Spears Puts Her Foot Down For High Fashion in New Music Video". Papier Doll. 
    19. ^ "Designer Index – Christian Louboutin". Running With Heels. 17 September 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. 
    20. ^ "Luxury Brand Status Index 2008: Footwear". Reuters. 17 June 2008. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. 
    21. ^ "Luxury Brand Status Index 2009: Footwear". Reuters. 12 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. 
    22. ^ Digital Luxury (December 2011). "Analysis of Consumers' Search Intentions and Brands' Social Media Presence". The Luxury Shoe Industry. Slideshare. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
    23. ^ "Christian Louboutin explains why women love shoes". YouTube. RTE. 14 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-08-04. 
    24. ^ "An Audience with Christian Louboutin". YouTube. net-a-porter. 25 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-04-05. 
    25. ^ Thomas, Dana (24 February 2003). "The Sole of Sexiness". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 2010-03-23. 
    26. ^ "An exclusive interview with Christian Louboutin - artflyer.net". Alexia interviews influential people in the arts | artflyer. 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2017-02-14.